The Hope Fault is thought to represent the primary continuation of the Alpine Fault. Generally the fault has a simple straight trace, striking ca. This displacement was inferred by Wellman due in part to the similarity of rocks in Southland and Nelson on either side of the Alpine Fault. The fault system extends northeast from the Alpine Fault near St Arnaud, through the eastern part of Tasman District and into Nelson City and Tasman Bay (Fig. [27][28] One of the goals of the project was to use the deformed rocks from the fault zone to determine its resistance to stress. The Alpine Schist is located on the eastern margin of the Alpine Fault, which accommodates oblique collision between the Pacific and Australian plates in New Zealand. [2], The fault zone is exposed at numerous locations along the West Coast and typically comprises a 10-50 m wide fault gouge zone with pervasive hydrothermal alteration. In the North Island, alpine terrain is limited to the volcanoes o… Transform fault (the red lines) A transform fault or transform boundary is a fault along a plate boundary where the motion is predominantly horizontal. [9] However, it is now inferred by multiples lines of evidence that the Alpine Fault ruptures creating major earthquakes about every few hundred years. The Alpine Fault forms part of the on-land Pacific-Australian plate boundary. [13] Newer research carried out by the University of Otago and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation revised the dates of the pre-1717 earthquakes to between 1535 and 1596 (instead of 1620), 1374 and 1405 (instead of 1430), and 1064 and 1120 (instead of 1100). This item has been provided for private study purposes (such as school projects, family and local history research) and any published reproduction (print or electronic) may infringe copyright law. NIWA – National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 New Zealand Licence. [2] At the same time, Harold Wellman proposed the 480 km (300 miles) lateral displacement on the Alpine Fault. The Next Alpine Fault Earthquake in New Zealand, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alpine_Fault&oldid=992720605, Geographic areas of seismological interest, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 2003 – Fiordland, estimated magnitude = 7.1. ", "DEEP FAULT DRILLING PROJECT-2 FAQs / drill probe in Alpine Fault / Media Releases / News and Events / Home – GNS Science", "Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault", "Potential earthquake triggering in a complex fault network: the northern South Island, New Zealand", Alpine Fault research in the Department of Geology. However, most of the motion on the fault is strike-slip, with the Tasman district and West Coast moving North and Canterbury and … These had previously been determined to have occurred in approximately 1100, 1430, 1620 and 1717 CE, at intervals between 100 and 350 years. Movement along the Alpine Fault is deforming the microcontinent of, Pacific Plate and Indo-Australian Plate boundary, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, "Alpine Fault / Major Faults in New Zealand / Earthquakes / Science Topics / Learning / Home – GNS Science", "New study says Alpine Fault quake interval shorter than thought: GNS Science", "Timing of late Holocene surface rupture of the Wairau Fault, Marlborough, New Zealand", 10.1130/0016-7606(1995)107<0231:OOSSSA>2.3.CO;2, "An extremely low-density human population exterminated New Zealand moa", "1. [16] A 2018 study says that a significant rupture in the Alpine Fault could lead to roads (particularly in or to the West Coast) being blocked for months, as with the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake, with problems in supplying towns and evacuating tourists. The average slip rates in the fault's central region are about 38mm a year, very fast by global standards. Alpine Fault The Alpine fault marks the plate boundary between the An Otago geologist's draft manuscript suggests there's a tectonic fault system off the South Island's east coast potentially comparable in size to the Alpine Fault. Register Warranty. All non-text content is subject to specific conditions. This idea coupled with the displacement on the fault proposed that the earth's surface was in relatively rapid constant movement and helped to overthrow the old geosynclinal hypothesis in favour of plate tectonics. A right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island. Because of this during the mid 20th century it was speculated that the Alpine Fault creeps without making large earthquakes. The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. [1][5], The Alpine Fault has the greatest uplift near Aoraki / Mount Cook in its central section. [27] Researchers also planned to install long term equipment for measuring pressure, temperature and seismic activity near the fault zone. The hanging wall slides down relative to the footwall. The Māori arrived in New Zealand c.1300 but never reached a high population density in the colder South Island. In the north, the fault trends offshore and into thrust type, "where tsunami can be born". Here the relative motion between the two plates averages 37–40 mm a year. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island (c. 480 km) and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. In this view looking south across Gaunt Creek, the Alpine Fault is seen emplacing mylonite over Holocene gravels. In the northeastern South Island, especially in the Kaikoura District, a substantial part of the plate movement is distributed on a series of large strikeslip faults east - of the Alpine Fault. [30][31] One of the lead researchers said that it is likely to be globally unique.[32]. Find a local Authorised Alpine Specialist Dealer in your area. The Alpine fault is the Pacific‐Australian plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand. System. The Australian plate is sliding horizontally towards the north-east, at the same time as the Pacific plate is pushing up, forming the … [5] The Alpine Fault is not a single structure but often splits into pure strike-slip and dip-slip components. Figure 7Schematic diagram of the dextral-reverse Alpine Fault and its scarp. Richard H. Sibson from the same university also used the Alpine Fault to refine his nomenclature of fault rocks which gained international adherence. [5] Then uplift slowly began as the plate motion became slightly oblique to the strike of the Alpine Fault. [25], The Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) was an attempt in 2014 to retrieve rock and fluid samples and make geophysical measurements inside the Alpine Fault zone at depth. The eroded material has formed the Canterbury Plains. In the middle the Alpine Fault is a transform boundary and has both dextral (right-lateral) strike-slip movement and uplift on the southeastern side. This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 19:25. Knife is 7 cm long. Where were New Zealand’s largest earthquakes? Diagram 4 above represents the layering of these rock types and their exposure to the west of the Southern Alpine Main Divide by uplifting at the Alpine Fault border). There have been no major earthquakes on the Alpine Fault in historic times, its southern and northern offshoots have, however, experienced sizable earthquakes: In 2012, GNS Science researchers published an 8000-year timeline of 24 major earthquakes on the (southern end of the) fault from sediments at Hokuri Creek, near Lake McKerrow in north Fiordland. This study analyzes 195 earthquakes recorded during the 6 month duration of the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE) in 1995/1996 and two M₁. [3], Large ruptures can also trigger earthquakes on the faults continuing north from the Alpine Fault. The Alpine Fault in the central region forms dipping sections with oblique thrust characteristics connected by sections with mainly dextral strike-slip, resulting in a "zigzag" outcrop pattern. There have been no major historical earthquakes on the Alpine Fault. Software Updates. [4], The Indo-Australian Plate is subducting towards the east south of the South Island and the Pacific Plate is subducting towards the West to the north. We report on a 45 km long section of the fault system within an area between the mouth of the Wairoa In the last 12 million years the Southern Alps have been uplifted approximately 20 kilometres, however, as this has occurred more rain has been trapped by the mountains leading to more erosion. Commercial re-use may be allowed on request. However, most of the motion on the fault is strike-slip (side to side), with the Tasman district and West Coast moving North and Canterbury and Otago moving South. In between earthquakes, the Alpine Fault is locked. The Alpine Fault is a mature, dextral strike-slip fault that marks the western boundary of the Southern Alps. ... the South Island's alpine fault is a transform fault for much of its length. This set of faults, which includes the Wairau Fault, the Hope Fault, the Awatere Fault, and the Clarence Fault, transfer displacement between the Alpine Fault and the Hikurangi subduction zone to the north. [2] In outcrop the fault zone is overlain by mylonites which formed at depth and have been uplifted by the fault.[8]. In the new study, the interval between earthquakes ranged from 160 to 350 years and the probability of an earthquake occurring in the following 50 years was estimated at 29 per cent. In addition, an earlier earthquake was identified to have occurred between 887 and 965.[14]. oriented 17 ø counterclockwise to the strike of the Alpine fault (Figure 2). The rupture will produce one of the biggest earthquakes since European settlement of New Zealand, and it will have a major impact on the lives of many people. Source: NIWA – National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Eileen McSaveney, 'Active faults - Building on or near active faults', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/diagram/4361/alpine-fault-offshore-from-fiordland (accessed 16 December 2020), Story by Eileen McSaveney, published 12 Jun 2006, reviewed & revised 1 Aug 2017. A focused look at the Alpine fault, New Zealand: Seismicity, focal mechanisms, and stress observations ; Duncan, R.P. Diagram showing a transform fault with two plates moving in opposite directions. 2.2. © Crown Copyright. The uplift is due to an element of convergence between the plates, meaning that the fault has a significant high-angle reverse oblique component[clarification needed] to its displacement. Historical earthquakes on the Alpine fault, `` where tsunami can be born '' sideways, up. Part of the dextral-reverse Alpine fault fault occurs in this case the fault... 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