Roosevelt’s “fireside chats” provided an opportunity for him to speak directly to the American people, and the people were happy to listen. The first hundred days of his administration was not a master plan that Roosevelt dreamed up and executed on his own. Question 20 (1 point) The Glass-Steagall Act: a) maintained the gold standard. President Franklin D. Roosevelt started the programs to help the country recover from the economic problems of the Great Depression . Each of these crises could be treated separately by emerge… A similar program, created through the Emergency Farm Mortgage Act and Farm Credit Act, provided the same service for farm mortgages. The STFU was created to help alleviate this suffering, but many farmers ending up taking to the road, along with other Dust Bowl refugees, on their way to California. For many workers, life on the job was not much better than life as an unemployed American. Likewise, as with several other New Deal programs, women did not directly benefit from these employment opportunities, as they were explicitly excluded for the benefit of men who most Americans still considered the family’s primary breadwinner. Upon assuming office in 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt faced a desperate economy that was on the verge of total collapse. Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes ran the program, which completed over thirty-four thousand projects, including the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco and the Queens-Midtown Tunnel in New York. Placed in the auditorium of the Leonardo Da Vinci Art School, 149 East 34th Street, New York, New York,& ca. This law also created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or FDIC, which insured personal bank deposits up to $2,500. Second, the increase in demand was stronger for new items than for items that the retailer had sold in previous years. The NIRA also created the Public Works Administration (PWA). Racially integrated and with active women members, the STFU was ahead of its time. By the spring of 1934, farmers had formed over four thousand local committees, with more than three million farmers agreeing to participate. It gave new incentives to farmers and industry alike, and put people back to work in an effort to both create jobs and boost consumer spending. Clashes between workers, and police and National Guardsmen left many strikers bloodied, and at least two dead. ... First New Deal- Goal: Saving capitalism through management and regulation Franklin D. Roosevelt between 1933 and 1939, which took action to bring about immediate economic relief as well as reforms in industry, agriculture, finance, waterpower, labour, and housing, vastly increasing the scope of the federal government’s activities. By the close of 1933, in an effort to stem the crisis, Congress had passed over fifteen significant pieces of legislation—many of the circulated bills allegedly still wet with ink from the printing presses as members voted upon them. Although Roosevelt’s relief efforts provided jobs to many and benefitted communities with the construction of several essential building projects, the violence that erupted amid clashes between organized labor and factories backed by police and the authorities exposed a fundamental flaw in the president’s approach. The First New Deal was more experimental and focused on relief efforts; the Second New Deal was more focused on class conflict. Another work program was the Civilian Conservation Corps Relief Act (CCC). In what ways did the New Deal both provide direct relief and create new jobs? e) introduced by Franklin Roosevelt as part of the New Deal. The First New Deal encompassed national planning laws and programs for the needy from 1933 - 1934. They would earn thirty dollars per month planting trees, fighting forest fires, and refurbishing historic sites and parks, building an infrastructure that families would continue to enjoy for generations to come. The Communist Party took advantage of the opportunity to assist in the hope of creating widespread protests against the American industrial structure. Using simple terms and a reassuring tone, he invoked a family patriarch sitting by the fire, explaining to those who trusted him how he was working to help them. These price increases would be achieved by encouraging farmers to limit production in order to increase demand while receiving cash payments in return. When New Deal policies did help workers, they disproportionately benefited white men. What difficulties did this agency face? Another challenge faced by the NRA was that the provision granting workers the right to organize appeared to others as a mandate to do so. Summarize each of the leading New Deal agencies that were created in the first years of the New Deal. Together, they permanently changed the relationship between government and business and promoted government as an agent of the common good, … While many were pleased with the president’s bold plans, there were numerous critics of the New Deal, discussed in the following section. For some farmers, especially those with large farms, the program spelled relief. Regionally, Roosevelt’s work was most famously seen in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), a federal agency tasked with the job of planning and developing the area through flood control, reforestation, and hydroelectric power. “Mean Things Happening in This Land,” “Roll the Union On,” and “Strike in Arkansas” are just a few of the folk songs written by John Handcox. Dedicated to President Roosevelt. He immediately created a bank holiday and used the time to bring before Congress legislation known as the Emergency Banking Act, which allowed federal agencies to examine all banks before they reopened, thus restoring consumer confidence. Thomas Kessner, Distinguished Professor of History at The Graduate Center, The City University of New York, is the author of Fiorello H. La Guardia and the Making of Modern New York (1989), Capital City: New York City and the Men behind America’s Rise to Dominance, 1860–1900 (2003), and The Flight of the Century: Charles Lindbergh and the Rise of American Aviation (2010). While programs such as the Tennessee Valley Authority were not incepted solely for the purpose of generating jobs, they nevertheless created thousands of employment opportunities in service of their greater goals. Most important to the New Deal were Secretary of Interior Harold Ickes and Labor Secretary Frances Perkins, the first female cabinet member in American history.These two mainstays stuck it out through Roosevelt’s entire presidency, through thick and thin. The AAA did succeed on some fronts. Passed into law on May 12, 1933, it was designed to boost prices to a level that would alleviate rural poverty and restore profitability to American agriculture. You people must have faith; you must not be stampeded by rumors or guesses. He also signed into law the Securities Act, which required full disclosure to the federal government from all corporations and investment banks that wanted to market stocks and bonds. A union organizer and STFU member, Handcox became the voice of the worker’s struggle, writing dozens of songs that have continued to be sung by labor activists and folk singers over the years. The combination of his reassuring manner and the promise that the government was addressing the problems worked wonders in changing the popular mindset. Analyze the federal government’s attempts to create a more ordered economy through the National Recovery Administration. But after taking office and analyzing the crisis, Roosevelt and his advisors did feel that they had a larger sense of what had caused the Great Depression and thus attempted a variety of solutions to fix it. One significant problem, however, was that, in some cases, there was already an excess of crops, in particular, cotton and hogs, which clogged the marketplace. How did the NRA seek to protect workers? e) provided relief to very few Americans. b) led to the construction of few public facilities. What later became known as the “First New Deal” ushered in a wave of legislative activity seldom before seen in the history of the country. Explain how the role of the federal government changed between 1933 and 1935, using these programs as examples. Despite previous efforts to regulate farming through subsidies, never before had the federal government intervened on this scale; the notion of paying farmers not to produce crops was unheard of. At the outset of the First New Deal, specific goals included 1) bank reform; 2) job creation; 3) economic regulation; and 4) regional planning. c) led by Father Charles E. Coughlin and directed at Catholics. They signed individual contracts agreeing to take land out of production in return for government payments, and checks began to arrive by the end of 1934. This was a bold attempt to help farmers address the systemic problems of overproduction and lower commodity prices. These were the immediate goals of the Hundred Days Congress , which met March 9-June 6, 1933. provided relief to very few Americans. He then went on, in his historic first hundred days, to sign numerous other significant pieces of legislation that were geared towards creating jobs, shoring up industry and agriculture, and providing relief to individuals through both refinancing options and direct handouts. Ironically, it was the American people’s volunteer spirit, so extolled by Hoover, that Roosevelt was able to harness. ASSESSING THE FIRST NEW DEAL. As the Twenty-First Amendment, which would repeal the Eighteenth Amendment establishing Prohibition, moved towards ratification, this law authorized the manufacture of 3.2 percent beer and levied a tax on it. Starring Kate McKinnon as Ms. Fiona Frizzle, Ms. Valerie Frizzle’s kid sister! A bumper crop in 1933, combined with the slow implementation of the AAA, led the government to order the plowing under of ten million acres of cotton, and the butchering of six million baby pigs and 200,000 sows. b) led to the construction of few public facilities. Finally, a San Francisco strike among 14,000 longshoremen closed the city’s waterfront and eventually led to a city-wide general strike of over 130,000 workers, essentially paralyzing the city. Question 6 6 These radio addresses, commemorated at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Memorial in Washington, DC, with this bronze sculpture by George Segal, contributed to Roosevelt’s tremendous popularity. For a limited time, find answers and explanations to over 1.2 million textbook exercises for FREE! The National Recovery Administration (NRA) established a “code of fair practice” for every industry. The Magic School Bus: Rides Again is a brand new update to the beloved animated show featuring our favorite class of adventurers. The Second New Deal (1935–38) was more pro-labor/social reforms and anti-business. Rather than seeking a single major solution to the economic problems, Roosevelt and his advisors chose to treat the Depression as a number of individual crises. The New Deal was first and foremost about resolving the economic crisis of the Great Depression. See New Deal Bibliography for a selection of related materials in ALIC. The New Deal is the name given to the series of programs implemented between 1933-37 under President Franklin D. Roosevelt with the goal of relief, recovery and reform of the United States economy during the Great Depression. Critics were plentiful, and the president would be forced to address them in the years ahead. Although criticized by other union leaders for its relationship with the Communist Party in creating the “Popular Front” for labor activism in 1934, the STFU succeeded in organizing strikes and bringing national attention to the issues that tenant farmers faced. Confidence and courage are the essentials of success in carrying out our plan. In June 1933, Roosevelt replaced the Emergency Banking Act with the more permanent Glass-Steagall Banking Act. Being paralyzed with polio, he was very afraid of being left near a fireplace. Consumer confidence returned, and within weeks, close to $1 billion in cash and gold had been brought out from under mattresses and hidden bookshelves, and re-deposited in the nation’s banks. The resulting Emergency Banking Act of 1933 was signed into law on March 9, 1933, a scant eight hours after Congress first saw it. Created by the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC), the program rescued homeowners from foreclosure by refinancing their mortgages. First, use of a $9 price ending increased demand in all three experiments. But he knew the power of the hearth and home, and drew on this mental image to help the public view him the way that he hoped to be seen. When Franklin Delano Roosevelt took office in 1933, he enacted a range of experimental programs to combat the Great Depression. By March 15, 70 percent of the banks were declared solvent and allowed to reopen. When Roosevelt took office, he faced one of the worst moments in the country’s banking history. The Wilson Dam, shown here, is one of nine TVA dams on the Tennessee River. For examples from both opponents and supporters of the New Deal, see Diggins, supra n.1 at 164-66; for details of leading New Deal pro-Fascist sentiment, see id. Other measures designed to boost confidence in the overall economy beyond the banking system included passage of the Economy Act, which fulfilled Roosevelt’s campaign pledge to reduce government spending by reducing salaries, including his own and those of the Congress. c) ended unemployment. Business owners were made to accept a set minimum wage and maximum number of work hours, as well as to recognize workers’ rights to organize and use collective bargaining. Critics saw it as the ultimate example of corrupt capitalism: a government destroying food, while its citizens were starving, in order to drive up prices. d) led by Louisiana senator Huey Long and gained a national following. I owe this in particular because of the fortitude and good temper with which everybody has accepted the inconvenience and hardships of the banking holiday. Answer: A. While many were pleased with the president’s bold plans, there were numerous critics of the New Deal, discussed in the following section. The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1939. The various programs that made up the First New Deal are listed in the table below. In all, over five thousand banks had been shuttered. The TVA also included an educational component, teaching farmers important lessons about crop rotation, soil replenishment, fertilizing, and reforestation. (credit: United States Geological Survey). The arrival of both electric lighting and machinery to the region eased the lives of the people who lived there, as well as encouraged industrial growth. Dozens of "alphabet reform" agencies were created. It put new capital into ailing banks. The PWA set aside $3.3 billion to build public projects such as highways, federal buildings, and military bases. A strike at the Auto-Lite plant in Toledo, Ohio, that summer resulted in ten thousand workers from other factories joining in sympathy with their fellow workers to attack potential strike-breakers with stones and bricks. While the NRA established over five hundred different codes, it proved difficult to adapt this plan successfully for diverse industries with very different characteristics and practices. Within the first two months, the CCC employed its first 250,000 men and eventually established about twenty-five hundred camps. Construction jobs went to men as a matter of custom, and benefits went to whites as a matter of politics. A new government agency, the National Recovery Administration (NRA), was central to this plan, and mandated that businesses accept a code that included minimum wages and maximum work hours. This adjustment would come about by increasing the purchasing power of everyday people, as well as through regulatory policies like the NRA and AAA. 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